There was something about him, the way he peered deep into the innermost points of the soul, capturing the inklings of fragmented doubt and channelling it into a reconstituted mode of living. Nietzsche represents perhaps one of the greatest philosophers, challenging convention and exploiting the frailties of man. His life, while tragic in end, was characterized by remarkable clarity as he generated ideologies which continue to challenge more traditional methods of thinking. Through identification and substantiation of a previously unchallenged errant value system, his controversial writing derided the use of standardized religion as a mode for value manipulation. His many frames of reference from nihilism to positivism sustained a remarkable dynamic insight, one which enabled true introspection instead of masking it with figments. A myriad selection of works to choose from, the common theme of rejuvenation of values runs through a great many, and as his evolution of thought perpetuated this ideology, the extraction of exploited human nature became an opulent goal. Ultimately, Nietzsche represents a frame of reference too often ignored, as mankind seeks to define meaning and reason through internally propelled mechanisms.
Nihilism the Moral Divider Identification of a mode of living called nihilism for Nietzsche was a direct result of his detachment of value systems from modern thinking. Identification of man’s most naturalized instincts through an integration of power into his definition, Nietzsche identified religion as a mode of subordination, a state of being in which “we are occupied, hence not bored, and yet have no willful or passionate impulses; after carrying out an action, the feeling of responsibility and hence the agony of regret are absent.” (Nietzsche HH, p. 107) Therefore, through living in a frame of reference defined by an untenable value structure uproots mankind’s appreciation of higher forms of consciousness such as artistic inspiration. Definitively, “nihilism represents a pathological transitional stage (what is pathological is the tremendous generalization, the inference that there is no meaning at all.)” (Nietzsche, WP 13) Identification with nihilism was not Nietzsche’s ultimate objective, however, as he was actively seeking a value system to define an inspired frame of reference.
In his exodus from religion, more introspective analysis becomes possible, as “the value of these values themselves must be called into question.” (Nietzsche, GM p. 6) This ambiguous approach to identification of a value system leads nihilism to subvert in the form of pessimism, as the unencumbered mind freed from a religiously defined power structure does, in turn, find little sanctity in the absence of value. This overt pessimism is considered a transitional phase, a part of nihilism which requites an extreme frame of reference adjustment, as nihilism represents a “consequence of moral valuation.” (Nietzsche, WP p. 8) Definition of moral structures through what Nietzsche called the “fictitious world,” leaves internally generated fragmentation as the basis for values is derided and debunked. Ultimately, the world will appear valueless to the resurrected modern soul, yet it is within an innate pathos that the need to define a new value structure becomes undeniable. (Nietzsche, WP p. 32)
For Nietzsche, “the Christian values and world-outlook that had formed the heart of European culture had lost the allegiance of men, and the culture, adrift without a framework, was threatened with impending collapse into despair, nihilism, madness, and doom.” (Ridpath 1985, p. 10) Evasion of nihilism is the repercussion of internalized value-based mechanisms which actively defines a new power structure, one which is based within the individual, not governed by external means. Leading Nietzsche to his Dionysian identification, this form of value determination was based on “apprehension of fundamental aspects of existence.” (Schacht 1983, p. 346) Reframing one’s nihilistic intentions to encompass an internally generated value system is to identify freely with existence, not to subvert its nature. “In this interpretation, there exists, strictly speaking, neither an unegoistic action nor completely disinterested contemplation.” (Nietzsche HH, p. 1) Activity in one’s pursuit of a redefinition of values propagates deep introspection and an affectation with the natural environment, rekindling one’s humanity and excluding a fantastically defined structure.
Positivism and Value Structures
Value determination engenders the cumulative work of Nietzsche’s life, a representation of both good and evil eviscerated from intangibly based religious maxims to represent a mode of living more meaningful than simply of subversion to unproven power. In comparison to his counterparts, Nietzsche challenged that “a philosopher demands of himself a judgment, a yes or no, not about the sciences but about life and the value of life.” (Nietzsche BGE, p. 205) While philosophy represents the basest form of scientific analysis, Nietzsche’s naturalistic approach based in identification of modes of living attaches great significance to the recreation of a value structure which exudes an artistic undertone by rebuking purely scientific modes of interpretation, as it would be as effective as a “scientific estimation of music.” (Nietzsche GS, p. 373) Neither science nor religion can therefore define the world, yet man’s trueness in nature exploits a system of understanding which defines behaviour and action. “If those with originality are forsaken by themselves, however, memory gives them no help: they become empty.” (Nietzsche HH, p. 127) To Nietzsche, emptiness represents an evasive form of living which undermines humanity and ignites a form of mob based thought processes which exploit the frailty of value systems.
Nietzsche further defines the paradox of value system generation through acquiescence to a form of noble morality. His challenge that “wherever slave morality comes to predominate, language exhibits a tendency to bring the words ‘good’ and ‘stupid’ closer to each other.” (Nietzsche BG, p. 197) The exploitation of morality for the sake of an acceptable foundation derides attempts at individualism, and recognition of slave-based tendencies leads back to a nihilistic evisceration of value systems. Nietzsche’s positivism is reticent in the underlying definition of the psychologist, as he claims that as “he turns his attention to the more select cases and human beings, the greater grows the danger of him suffocating from pity.” (Nietzsche BG, pp. 206-207) The need to expunge this from one’s internal value systems leads to an association with worldly people of a more stable composition. Plucking pity from piety becomes a mode of exceptional living, one which in a positivist framework determines the framework for value systems and mastering of morality. This ideology is controversial in its direct exploitation of internalism and subjective appreciation for positive modes of living