Ode to a Nightingale by John Keats


The poem was composed in May 1819 at Wentworth, Hamstead, where there was a garden frequented by a nightingale.

In the first stanza, the poet aspires to get intoxicated so that he might forget his life and the trials and despair of human existence, and he wishes to escape into the world of the nightingale’s song.

In the second stanza, the poet provides excellent imagery, and Keats’ sensuousness is evident when he depicts a bottle of wine and the purple stained mouth. The poet aspires to flee the world with the nightingale into the woodland in this stanza. The poet is transported into another realm by the nightingale’s song.

In the third stanza, the poem’s theme emerges where the poet feels that the world is full of agony and sorrow, suffering, despair, and death. Beauty, youth, and love are all fleeting in nature, and these lyrics emphasise the impermanence of existence.

In the fourth stanza, the poet wishes to fly away to the nightingale. In his imagination, the poet is with the bird, and he has flown to another realm on the wings of his words. Images of the Moon, stars, and the dark woodland beneath are a magnificent delight for the senses.

In stanza five, Keats’ sensuousness is at its zenith, when the sense of smell is engaged and a vivid vision of flowers is portrayed. Keats is able to infer which flowers may have been blossoming in the woodland based on the season because visibility is zero due to the darkness and the imagery of the blossoms to be the murmurous haunt of flies stirs the aural sense.

Keats has spoken about death in his poems in the sixth stanza and, he has talked about death and wishes to die now because it is the most appropriate time because he is in a state of heightened ecstasy by the nightingale’s song. The pain that death brings with it will not be felt by the poet because he is in perfect joy. The nightingale’s song has rendered the poet physically unconscious, rendering him oblivious to pain and sorrow.

In the second to last stanza, Keats discusses the nightingale’s immortality. He believes that the bird’s song has been around since the beginning of time and has touched the hearts of countless bereaved humans. The tale of Ruth from the Old Testament is mentioned in the Bible.

In the final stanza, Keats awakens from his imaginative flight and returns to the domain of human life, where the truth of his reality, the understanding of his self and human existence makes him unhappy and sorrowful once more. He wonders if he was in a dream, a trance, or if this was just his amusing imagination.

The poet is aware of the pains of humanity, as well as the transience of joy that the poet experienced not long ago.

Ode to a Nightingale is about the transience of joy, life, youth, and beauty.

Read Also: Analysis and Solved Questions of Ode to Nightingale


The poem’s themes are intoxication, consciousness, and loneliness. The poet laments the transience of beauty, love, and life, yet considers the nightingale’s song to be permanent and immortal. For the poet, human life is full of sufferings and conflicts, and he aspires to soar away with the nightingale on the wings of imagination, transcending beyond earthly existence, through poetry. The poem has an escapist tone until the final stanza, when the poet finds himself in a vulnerable human state of painful human life.

Sructure of The Poem

The poem is broken into 8 stanzas of 10 lines each, with the rhyme pattern a b a b c d e c d e. Many figures of speech were used by the poet, including alliteration, personification, simile, apostrophe, onomatopoeia, and allusions. It goes without saying that there is an abundance of imagery that appeals to the senses of sight, taste, and hearing. The poem is a lovely embodiment of Keats’ felicity of expression, imagination, and sensuality.


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