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RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT STUDY NOTES AND QUESTIONS

RESOURCES: – Everything available in our environment which is technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable and can satisfy our needs is known as resources.

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Biotic Resources:- Resources which are obtained from the biosphere and have life are known as biotic resources. These resources can be renewed. These include flora and fauna.

Abiotic Resources:- All non-living materials are known as abiotic resources. These resources cannot be renewed. These include rocks, metals, land, mountains, rivers, etc.

Renewable Resources:– The resources which can be renewed by the physical or chemical processes are known as renewable resources. They can be renewed in a short period of time. Solar and Wind energy, forests, water and wildlife are some examples.

Sustainable Development:- Sustainable development means development should take place without damaging the environment and development in the present should not compromise with the needs of the future generations.

Resource Planning:- Resource planning is the widely accepted strategy for judicious use of resources.

Factors determining the Land use pattern

The use of Land is determined by physical factors such as topography, climate, soil types as well as human factors such as population density, technological development and culture and traditions.

Waste Land:- A part of the Land which put to other non-agricultural uses is termed as wasteland. It includes rocky, arid and desert areas. It also includes settlements, roads, railways, industry, etc.

Land Degradation and its causes and measures to control it

Land degradation is a process in which the quality, as well as the quantity of the land, is affected by a combination of human and natural factors.

CAUSES

i. Minning ii. Mineral Processing iii. Saline and alkaline soils iv. Industrial effluents and wastes.

Measures to control land degradation

I. Afforestation
II.Controlled Grazing
III. Terraced Agriculture
IV. Check dams
V. Contour Ploughing
VI. Moisture conservation

Net Sown Area:- It is the area sown more than once in an agricultural year.

Gross Cropped Area:– It is the total land under crop production minus wasteland or land left fallow.

SOIL AND ITS TYPES

Soil:- Soil is a living system which supports different types of lifeforms on the earth.

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Types of Soil:- Alluvial soil, Black soil, Laterite soil, Red and Yellow soil, Forest soil, Arid soil.

Soil Erosion:- The removal of top fertile soil cover by the action of water and wind is known as soil erosion.

Measures for soil conservation
I. Contour ploughing
II. Terrace farming
III. Strip cropping
IV. Shelterbelts

Bangar:- It is old alluvial soil. It has a high concentration of Kanker nodules. Its particles are bigger and course.

Khadar:- It is new alluvial soil. It has less concentration of Kanker nodules. Its particles are small and fine.

IMPORTANT QUESTIONS

1. Name three states having black soil and the crop which is mainly grown in it.

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Ans:- Black soils are found in the states of Maharashtra, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh. The crop which is mainly grown in it is Cotton.

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2. What type of soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coast? Give three main features of this type of soil.

Ans:- Alluvial soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coast. The main features of this type of soil are as follows:

i. It consists of various proportions of sand, silt and clay.

ii. As a whole, these soils are very fertile.

iii. Mostly these soils contain an adequate proportion of Potash, Phosphoric acid and lime which are ideal for the growth of different types of crops.

3. What steps can be taken to control soil erosion in the hilly areas?

Ans:- The steps that can be taken to control soil erosion in the hilly areas are as:

Contour ploughing, Terrace cultivation, Strip cropping etc.

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4. What are the biotic and abiotic resources? Give some examples.

Ans:- Biotic Resources:- Resources which are obtained from the biosphere and have life are known as biotic resources. These resources can be renewed. These include flora and fauna.

Abiotic Resources:– All non-living materials are known as abiotic resources. These resources cannot be renewed. These include rocks, metals, land, mountains, rivers, etc.

5. Explain land use pattern in India and why has the land under forest not increased much since 1960-61?

Ans:- The total geographical area of India is 3.28 million sq.km. As per the land use data, only 93% of the total geographical area is available. Of this 43.4% is the net sown area, forest cover is 22.6%, 4.4% is culturable waste, 7.03% is current fallow, 4% is covered by pastures and 1% is covered by tree crops. The pattern of net sown area varies from one state to another. Forest area in the country is far less than the desired 33% of the geographical area, as it was outlined in the National Forest Policy (1952).

The land under forest did not increase much since 1960-61 due to several reasons like:

1. The improper use of land which has caused degradation of the available land area and made conservation of forests difficult.

2. The ever increasing illegal cutting of trees and forest cover to meet the needs of an increasing population.

3. Large scale development projects, industrialization and urbanization have reduced the forest cover to a great extent.

6. How have technical and economic development led to more consumption of resources?

Ans:- There are many regions in our country that are rich in resources but these are included in economically backward regions. On the contrary, there are some regions which have a poor resource base but they are economically developed.

The history of colonization reveals that the rich resources in the colonies were the main attractions for the foreign invaders. It was primarily the higher level of technological and economic development of the colonizing countries that helped them to exploit resources of other regions and establish their supremacy over the colonies. India has experienced all this in different phases of colonization.

Gandhiji placed the greedy and selfish individuals and exploitative nature of modern technology as the root cause for resource depletion at the global level. He was against mass production and wanted to replace it with the production by the masses.

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