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Textual Questions (Write in brief)

1. Explain
a) Why the growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-Colonial movement?

Ans: Nationalism in Europe is usually associated with the formation of Nation-states. However, in the Colonies like India, the growth of nationalism is intimately linked to the anti – Colonial movement. It is rightly said that nationalism in the Colonies developed partly as a result of and partly as a reaction to the policies of the Colonizers. The Colonial rule negatively affected the different sections of the people in the Colonies which developed a common feeling of oppression among them. It provided them with a good platform for the exchange of nationalist and liberal ideas. The common sense of oppression and exploitation brought together the people of different castes, classes and communities to fight against the Colonial rule. So, the anti-colonial movement resulted in the growth of nationalism in the Colonies.

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b) How did the First World War help in the growth of the national movement in India? (BOSE)
Ans: The First World War (1914-18) was an event of far-reaching significance. It transformed the Indian national movement into a mass movement, as it added to the miseries of the different sections of the Indian society. The contribution of the First World War in the growth of Indian national movement is highlighted in the following points.

i) The First World War led to a huge increase in defence expenditure. The result was a huge national debt. It was met by increasing taxes, raising of customs duties, war loans and introduction of income tax. These measures created economic hardships for Indians as the prices doubled between 1913 and 1918.

ii) The failure of crops in 1918-19 and 1920-21 in many parts of India led to acute food shortages. The further shortage of food crops was due to export of food to feed the army fighting abroad It was accompanied by an influenza epidemic which claimed 12 to 13 million lives.

iii) Between the years of 1914 and 1923 forced recruitment for the army was going on without interruptions, from rural areas of India caused a widespread reaction against the British. This all helped in the growth of the national movement in India. This is evident from the fact that the national movement spread to new areas, incorporated new social groups and developed new modes of struggle after the war.

c) Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act? (BOSE)

Ans: The Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act because of the following reasons:

i) Despite the united opposition of the Indian members, the imperial legislative council hurriedly passed this Act.

ii) The Act was totally against the expectations of the Indians as they expected the establishment of a responsible Govt. after World War – I.

iii) The Act denied “protection of the law” to Indians as it empowered the Govt. to arrest a person on mere doubt and detain him for two years without trial.

iv) It strengthened the hands of Colonial Govt. to repress the political activities of Indian nationalist and revolutionaries.
This “Black Act” was strongly reacted by the Indians. Gandhiji in the protest called for nation-wide hartal on 6th April 1919.

(d) Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the non-cooperation movement? (BOSE)
Ans: Non –cooperation movement began in January 1921. However, Gandhiji withdrew it in Feb 1922 because it took a violent turn. Gandhiji firmly believed in the philosophy of Ahimsa or non-violence. He had at the very beginning declared non-cooperation movement to be a non- violent movement. However, on 3rd Feb 1922 at Chauri-Chaura in Gorakhpur district of U.P. people burnt alive 22 policemen by burning a local police station. Here Gandhiji withdrew the movement realizing that it took a violent turn. He felt that the people were not yet ready for a mass movement. So, they need to be trained to understand how to carry a non-violent struggle successfully.

Q2) What is meant by the idea of Satyagraha? (BOSE)
Ans: (i) The chief aspect of Gandhi’s ideology was Satyagraha. Satyagraha was a non-violent method of mass agitation experimented and developed by Gandhiji against racist Govt. of South Africa. Confident over its success, Gandhiji adopted it to fight against the British Govt. of India.

(ii) It includes the means like hartals, peaceful demonstrations, boycott, picketing etc.

(iii) Gandhi defined it as truth-force of Soul force. It emphasized the power of truth and need to search for truth. It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then the physical force is not necessary to fight the oppressor.

(iv) In more practical terms it meant civil-disobedience. Non-violence or ahimsa was the cardinal principle of his message which was non -negotiable under all circumstances.

(v) It was based on the premise of the superior moral power of the protestors capable of changing the heart of the oppressor through a display of moral strength.

(vi) To win the battle through non-violence the Satyagraha could do it by appealing to the conscience of the oppressor. The oppressor had to be persuaded to see the truth, instead of being forced to accept truth through the use of violence.

Q3) Write a newspaper report (short note ) on
a) The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre/ Brutality of British in open/ The most brutal incident in Indian history.

Ans: On 13th April 1919, a large crowd of about 10000 people had assembled in the enclosed Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar. Some had come to protest against the repressive measures of the British Govt. and others to attend the annual Baishakhi fair. The people were mostly unaware of the imposition of Marshall Law in the city.

General Dyer, the British military commander plugged off all the possible exits and without any warning ordered his troops to open fire on the peaceful and unarmed protestors. The firing lasted for 10 minutes resulting into death of about 1000 civilians and wounded about 2000. The incident is popular in history as “Jallianwala Bagh Massacre”.

The incident proved a turning point in the Indian national movement. The brutal memories passed on from generation to generation & ultimately freed India from the British imperialism. The event was later described by General Dyer before the Hunter commission as the one meant for “producing a moral effect” among the Indians.

b) Simon Commission:
Racism on peak-Appointment of an All-out White commission. OR Why and how did the Indians Protest against Simon Commission.

In Nov 1927 Tory Govt. in Britain appointed a commission under the chairmanship of Sir John Simon. The commission was to look into the working of 1919 constitutional reforms in India and suggest changes.

The appointment of the commission sparked off a wave of protest all over India as all the seven members of the commission were Englishmen (whites). The exclusion of Indians in the commission mobilized the Indians to start a new phase of struggle against British rule. Therefore, the congress in its Madras session of Dec 1927 decided to boycott the commission. So, when the Simon Commission arrived in India on 03 Feb 1928, it was welcomed by Nation- wide hartal, black flags and the slogans of “Go back Simon”. The appointment of the Simon commission broke lull in the national movement which prevailed in it since the withdrawal of the non-cooperation movement.

Q4) Compare the images of Bharat Mata in this Chapter (Nationalism in India) with the image of Germania in chapter 1 (The rise of Nationalism in Europe).

Ans: The artists in Europe tried to give a concrete shape to the abstract ideas of nationalism, liberty etc through personification. The same trend was followed by Indian artists during the Indian National Movement. The comparison between Germania and Bharat Mata is highlighted in the following points.

Germania Bharat Mata

i) Germania, the female allegory of the German nation was believed to instil nationalist feelings among the German people. i) The devotion of people to Bharat Mata inspired nationalists to unify Indians and achieve freedom.

ii) Germania stood as personifications of the revolutionary ideals like “liberty” and “the Republic” . ii) The images of Bharat Mata came to be seen as symbols of nationalism.

iii) Germania was portrayed in visual representations wearing a crown of oak leaves. As the German oak stands for heroism, so it was aimed to develop heroism among Germans iii) Bharat Mata had been shown by different artists in different ways. Abanindranath Tagore painted Bharat Mata as a calm, composed, divine and spiritual figure. This was an attempt to present the character of India before the world. But, in another figure, she is shown with a Trishul standing besides a lion and an elephant symbolizing the power and authority of India.

iv) As Germania did not reflect any religious basis in making Germania, it did not create any controversy among the people of Germany iv) As the concept of Bharat Mata is linked with Hinduism, it played an indirect role in the spread of communalism in pre-independent India.

Discussion Questions
Q1) List all the different social groups which joined the non-cooperation movement of 1921. Then choose any three and write about their hopes and struggles to show why they joined the movement.
Ans: Non-cooperation movement began in Jan 1921 & was withdrawn in Feb 1922. The different social groups which joined the movement are enlisted as under:

i) Middle-class (students, teachers, lawyers etc) in the towns.
ii) Tribals in the hilly areas.
iii) Plantation workers.
iv) Peasants in the countryside.
In the non-cooperation movement various social groups participated, but each with its own specific aspirations or hopes. Here we will highlight the hopes and struggles of three different social groups.

i) Peasants: In the countryside, the movement incorporated the peasant struggles. The peasants directed their movements against oppressive landlords e.g. In Awadh, peasants demanded reduction of revenue, the abolition of begar and social boycott of oppressive landlords. So, for peasants, Swaraj meant freedom from the exploitation of landlords.

ii) Tribals: Tribals interpreted the movement in their own way. They hoped that through this movement they could restore their traditional forest rights such as shifting cultivation, hunting and gathering etc. e.g. In Gudem Hills of Andra Pradesh, tribal peasants started a militant guerilla movement against British under Alluri Sitarama Raju.

iii) Plantation Workers: The Gandhian programme and Swaraj was interpreted by plantation workers in their own way. For them, swaraj meant freedom to move freely in and out of the confined space of plantations which was denied to them under Inland Emigration Act of 1859. For them, non-cooperation programme included defying authorities, leave plantations and move towards home. e.g. for plantation workers of Assam freedom meant retaining a link with the village from which they had come.

Q2) Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against Colonialism.
Ans: The Civil Disobedience Movement was started by Gandhiji with his famous salt March on 12 March 1930 CE. He started the March from Sabarmati Ashram along with his 78 trusted followers. They marched on foot about 240 miles for about 24 days and reached Dandhi (a small village on the western coast) on 6 April 1930. Here, Gandhiji broke the unjust salt law by picking a handful of salt. The salt march was an effective symbol of resistance against Colonialism. This is revealed from the following points.

i) Gandhiji found the salt most powerful thing that could unite the nation as it was a thing consumed by the rich and poor alike. It was one of the essential items of food.

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ii) The British Govt. of India had a monopoly over the production of salt and salt tax hit every section of the Indian society. So, to break salt law was seen as an act which would give a wider base to the anti-colonial movement and shook the British rule.

iii) During the course of the salt march, thousands of volunteers were attracted towards Gandhiji. Gandhiji urged them to peacefully break the British laws. Thus salt march became an effective instrument of mobilizing people against Colonialism.

(iv) It was an open challenge to British laws as it gathered nationwide support against British and led to the spread of the civil disobedience movement.

Q3) Imagine you are a woman participating in the civil disobedience movement. Explain what the experience meant to your life.
Ans: As a woman, participating in the civil disobedience movement would be a great experience for me. I would be highly delighted to become a part of the anti-colonial movement. The participation in the movement along with thousands of like-minded women for the national cause would raise the status of women in the society. So, participating in the civil disobedience movement provided me with a great and cherishing experience in life.

Q4) Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates?
Ans: Separate electorate system was an important part and feature of the British policy of divide and rule. The political leaders sharply differed over the question of separate electorates because of their respective compulsions and understandings which are described below.

i) The leaders of All India Muslim League, like M.A. Jinnah and Dr Sir Mohammad Iqbal, favoured separate electorate as a safeguard for Muslims. They urged that in a Hindu majority country, the interests of the Muslims would suffer without separate electorate.

ii) RSS and Hindu Mahasabha. supported separate electorate, because the situation which forced the Muslim leaders to demand the separate electorate was the result of activities of the RSS and Hindu Mahasabha Organisations.

iii) The congress leaders like J.L. Nehru and Gandhiji opposed the system of separate electorates.

They considered it as an obstacle in the way of unity of Indians and the national movement. Gandhiji even went on fast unto death to convince B.R. Ambedkar for the joint electorate.

iv) B.R Ambedkar , the leader of the Dalits, supported separate electorate for Dalits. He considered it an important tool for the upliftment of his people and to end the deprivation inflicted on them by the orthodox Brahmans.

Additional Question

Q.1) Describe the growth of nationalism in Europe after the 1830s?
(OR)

Describe the main factors that led to the rise and growth and development of nationalism in Europe.

Ans) The following factors that led to the growth and development of nationalism in Europe are:

(1) The French Revolution provided the basis for it. Inspired by it, the revolutionaries in other European countries also started the movements and campaigns to develop nationalism among their people. As a result, there occurred large scale political transformation in Europe after the 1830s.

(2) Some countries were freed from a despotic rule like France, some others were freed from foreign rule like Greece and more importantly, some were united as nations like Italy and Germany.

(3) The Lecture of Ernst Renan in 1882 on “what is a nation” inspired the people towards nationalism and nation formation. Likewise the ideas of John Locke, Voltaire and Rousseau also proved productive in the growth of nationalism in Europe.

(4) The Napoleonic wars, revolutionary actions of Guissepe Mazzini, Count Cavour, Guissepe Garibaldi, Bismarch paved the way for the growth of nationalism in Europe after the 1830s.

(5) Romanticists like Johann Gottfried Herder, Lord Byron, Karol Kurpinski, Grimm Brothers emphasized on the role of art, poetry, folktales, music, language etc in the development of nationalism. So, culture also contributed to the growth of nationalism in Europe after the 1830s. These are the main factors in the growth and development of nationalism in Europe.

More Textual questions

Q1) Write a note on:
(a) Guiseppe Mazzini:- Guiseppe Mazzini, an important architect of the unification of Italy, was born in 1807 in Genoa. He was the prophet of Italian nationalism He was always concerned about the fate of his country. This is evident from the fact that he used to dress in black garments to project himself as a mourner. He said that God had intended (planned) nations to be the natural units of mankind. In order to liberate his country from foreign rulers, he joined a revolutionary organization called Carbonari, a secret society formed in 1810 mainly by the charcoal burners of Italy to attempt a revolution in his native state of Liguria. However, the attempt failed, and Mazzini was arrested and imprisoned. After his release, While in exile, he founded a new organization called “Young Italy”. The organization was named “Young Italy” because Mazzini firmly believed in the potential of youth. It aimed to liberate his country from foreign rule and bring its unification through the education of young men. He appealed to the youth through his writings and speeches and established branches of “young Italy” in every nook and corner of the country. The young Italy began to attract thousands of young Italians who were prepared to give the sacrifice of their lives for the cause of liberation and unification of their country. Though Mazzini and his “young Italy” failed to achieve unification, yet they had filled the minds of the people with such sentiments that other patriots were able to achieve the unification of Italy without much difficulty.

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(b) Count Camillo de-Cavour:- Count Cavour, an important liberator of Italy belonged to an aristocratic family of Sardinia. Moved by the defeat of Sardinia at the hands of Austria, Cavour decided to work for the unification of Italy. In 1848 he urged the king Victor Emmanuel II to take the lead in liberating Italy from the Austrian control. When he got elected to the Assembly, he made eloquent (fluent) speeches aimed to improve the state affairs in Sardinia and piedmont. The king was deeply impressed by him and appointed him as the Chief Minister in 1852. After realizing the fact that the kingdom of Sardinia and piedmont was a small power. He thought that to achieve the goal of liberation of Italy, two things were essential first to build up a strong army, second, the assistance of a foreign power to defeat Austria. So, he entered into a diplomatic alliance with France and succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859.

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(C) The Greek war of independence:- Greece had been under the control of the Ottoman Empire since the 15th century. Greeks were subjected to heavy taxation and Turkish law courts did not protect the Greeks against injustice. The growth of revolutionary nationalism in Europe mobilized the Greeks to struggle for independence. So, the Greek war of independence was started in 1821. Nationalists in Greece were supported by the educated elite of Europe. Due to Greek classical heritage, there was tremendous sympathy for the Greek cause throughout Europe The scholars and artists praised Greece as they considered it as the cradle of European civilization. Thus in 1829, France, England, Russia etc supported Greek to defeat sultan of Turkey and forced him to sign the treaty of Adrianople in 1829 A.D. Ultimately Greece was recognized as an independent nation in 1832 through the treaty of Constantinople.

(d) Frankfurt Parliament: The 1848 French revolution inspired the middle-class Germans to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation-state to be governed by an elected parliament. In May 1848, 831 elected representatives of German Confederacy came together in the city of Frankfurt. They assembled in the church of St. Paul and drafted a constitution for the German nation to be headed by a monarch subject to parliament (Constitutional monarchy). This was an attempt by the liberals to unify the German states. However, the Frankfurt assembly failed because Friedrich Wilhelm, the King of Prussia rejected the offer to act as the emperor of Germany. He was joined by the other monarchs to suppress the liberals. The assembly came to an end in May 1849.

(e) The Role of women in nationalist struggles:- The role of women in the nationalist struggles of Europe is briefly summarized in the following points:-

(i) Women played a very significant role in nationalist struggles all over the world. In all the European states. France, Germany, Italy and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, women had taken an active part in the nationalist struggle of their countries. women actively participated in the movements of the French revolution. Likewise in the unification of Italy and Germany, women played a significant role.

(ii) Women actively participated in the nationalist struggles of Europe because they were mobilized by the measures of the liberal nationalists. The liberal nationalists personified “liberty” as a female figure.

(iii) They were equally responsible for demanding constitutionalism with national unification.

(iv) Women had formed their own political associations and taken part in political meetings and demonstration. They led the movements, faced the tortures, spread the ideas of liberal nationalism and participated in the various revolutionary organizations.

(v) While men were busy in outside wars, women handled all family issues. They published several journals and magazines.

Q2) What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people? (BOSE)
Ans) In order to create a sense of collective identity among the French people the French revolutionaries adopted the following measures and practices:-

(i) The ideas of “la Patrie” (the fatherland) and “le citoyen” (the citizen) were introduced to emphasis the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.

(ii) A new French flag, the tricolour was chosen as a national symbol to replace the royal standard.

(iii) The Estates-General was replaced by the National Assembly whose members were elected by a body of active citizens.

(iv) A centralized administrative system was introduced to make uniform laws for all citizens.

(v) The dialect of the French language spoken & used in Paris was encouraged as the national language and regional dialects were discouraged.

(vi) A uniform system of weights and measures was adopted and internal customs duties were abolished to promote economic exchange.

Q3) Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?
Ans) Marianne was the female allegory of the French nation. Similarly, Germania was the female allegory of the German nation. They stood as personifications of the revolutionary ideals like “liberty” and “the Republic”. The importance of the way in which they were portrayed is given in the following points:-

(i) It was an attempt of the revolutionaries to give a concrete form to the abstract idea of the nation. They believed that it would instil nationalist feelings among the people of these countries.

(ii) Statues of Marianne with the red cap, the tricolour and the cockade were erected at public squares to remind the public the symbol of national unity.

(iii) Germania was portrayed in visual representations wearing a crown of oak leaves. As the German oak stands for heroism, so it was aimed to develop heroism among Germans.

Unification of Germany:

Ans. (i) Before the Napoleonic conquests, Germany was divided into more than 300 independent states. Prussia was the largest one.
(iii) Napoleon conquered German states and re-organised them into 39 states. Napoleon had given the idea of a united Germany which should embrace all the German-speaking people under one national Govt., but the congress of Vienna undid the work of Napoleon and revived the old German states.

(iv) The establishment of Zollverein or the customs union of the German states helped in the growth of the idea of the political unification of German states.
However, the liberals failed in their attempt because of the repression of the combined forces of Monarchy and landlords. Later on, Prussia took over the leadership of the movement for German unification Role of Bismark in German Unification:

(i) Prince Otto von Bismark, the chancellor of Prussia, was the architect of German unification. He believed that bursts of sentiments have no place in politics, and followed blood and iron policy. He believed that only Prussia was fit to lead the movement for the German unification.

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(ii) He knew that domination of Austria, and France must be broken to make unification possible. For this, he reorganised the Prussian army and to raise money that was needed for wars.

(iii) Bismark’s object of unifying Germany was accomplished by the following three wars with Denmark, Austria and France which were covered into a brief period of seven years (1864 – 71) and won all the wars. These wars completed the process of German unification. On 18 Jan 1871, the Prussian king, William I was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.

(i) The Danish War: Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein were under the possession of Denmark, but were inhabited by Germany. They were a bone of contention between Germany and Denmark. Bismark induced the Austrian Emperor to join Germany in the war against Denmark. The Astor – German armies easily defeated Denmark and forced her to cede the two duchies to Austria and Prussia Jointly.

(ii) Austro-Prussian War (AD 1866): Now Bismark planned to annex the two Duchies to Prussia. He accused Austria of encouraging discontent against the Prussians in Schleswig. In 1866, Prussia declared war and defeated Austria. The North German confederation was next step by Bismark for the unification of Germany.

(iii)France-Prussia war (Ad- 1871): The war between Prussia and France was the final step in the creation of the unified German nation. The dispute was over the succession to the Spanish throne. On July 19, 1870, France declare war against Prussia. The states of North confederation supported Prussia and defeated France and surrender Alsace and Lorraine to German.

Q5) What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him?
Ans) Napolean Bonaparte was an enlightened despot. He desired an orderly Govt. and a rational administration. This is evident from the following changes which he introduced to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him.

(i) He abolished all privileges based on birth and put careers open to men of talent.

(ii) He established equality before the law and secured the right of the people to hold property. Farmers enjoyed ownership rights on the existing land that was acquired from church and nobility.

(iii) He abolished feudal order.

(iv) Nobles, middle classes and peasants became subjects of the state, all equally liable to pay taxes.

(v) In the urban areas, he removed guild restrictions and internal custom barriers.

(vi) He standardized weights and measures, common currency which, facilitated movement and exchange of goods and hence boosted the trade and commerce.

Discuss
Q1) Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals?
Ans: The year 1848 is popularly called the year of revolution of the liberals led by the educated middle class. In the year 1848, there were uprisings and upheavals for liberty and nationhood or unification in several parts of Europe. The revolutionary wave started in France & immediately spread to most parts of Europe. In Feb 1848, the liberals in France along with workers took to streets to demand reforms. It resulted in the proclamation of France as a republic & extension of the franchise to all the males above 21 years of age. Besides, national workshops were set up to provide food, health care and employment to the people. Although this widespread revolutionary wave was suppressed by the conservatives, they could not restore the old order. For instance, the 1848 revolutionary attempts of the liberals in Germany, Italy etc were suppressed but they convinced the conservatives to go for changes.

The liberals supported the following political, social and economic ideas.

i) They emphasized the concept of govt. by consent.

ii) They were against autocracy and unjust Privileges and favoured a constitutional and representative govt. through parliament.

iii) They also emphasized freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law.

iv) In the economic sphere, they emphasized freedom of markets and abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.

Q2) Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe?
Ans: Culture played an important role in the growth of nationalism in Europe. The contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe can be understood from the following examples.

i) The German Romanticist philosopher Johan Gottfried Herder popularized the true spirit of the nation (volksgeisf) through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances. He insisted on the importance of collecting and recording of different forms of folk culture in the nation-building.

ii) Poland was divided at the end of the 18th century by the great powers namely Russia, Prussia and Austria. Here the nationalist feelings were kept alive and promoted through language and music. e.g. Karol kurpinski celebrated the national struggle through his operas and music. He made folk dances like polonaise and mazurka as the nationalist symbols.

After the Russian occupation, the Polish language was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere under the policy of Russification. In response to it, clergy used polish language in church gatherings and all other religious instruction. They promoted polish language as a weapon of national resistance.

iii) Due to Greek classical heritage, there was tremendous sympathy for the Greek cause throughout Europe The scholars and artists praised Greece as they considered it as the cradle of European civilization. During the Greek war of independence, achievements and glorious past of Greek was reminded.

Q3) Through a focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth century.
Ans: Nationalism that emerged in the 18th century in Europe led to the development of nations over the 19th century. Several nations were formed in the 19th century. However, here we will focus on the development of Germany and Italy as nations.
i) Germany:- The French occupation and congress of Vienna transformed about 200 kingdoms of Germany into a confederation of 39 independent states. German nationalism that emerged during its French occupation was subsequently developed by the inspiration of romanticist ideas. In 1848, liberals tried to unify Germany through Frankfurt assembly but failed because of the opposition & rejection of the King of Prussia, Friedrich Wilhelm. In the following decades, many Germans turned to Prussia for leadership in the struggle for unification. The CM of Prussia, Otto Von Bismarck adopted the policy of blood and iron (war diplomacy) with the help of army and bureaucracy. Under this policy, Prussia fought 3 wars over seven years with Denmark, Austria & France. This policy resulted in Prussian victory and German unification. On 18 Jan 1871 William, I was proclaimed as the German emperor. This way Germany developed into a nation.

ii) Italy:- Italy was divided into seven states in the middle of the 19th century. Out of these states only one, Sardinia-piedmont was ruled by the Italians themselves. Giuseppe Mazzini who was a liberal revolutionary sought to unify Italy. He formed “Young Italy” but failed to drive Austrians out of Italy in 1848 uprising. After it, the responsibility was taken by Sardinia-piedmont. Its CM count Cavour defeated Austria through a diplomatic alliance with France. After it, Garibaldi organized “Expedition of the thousand’ to liberate southern Italy from Bourbons. In 1861 Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed as the king of united Italy.

Q4) How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?
Ans: Britain was formed as a nation in a unique way. Unlike France, Italy, Germany etc, it was not formed as a result of a sudden upheaval or revolution, but as a result of a long drawn process.

(i) Before the 18th century, primary identities of the people who inhabited British isles were based on their ethnicities such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish. The English nation which grew in wealth, importance & power began to extend its influence over other ethnic groups inhabiting the isles. It was during the Glorious Revolution of 1688 that British parliament snatched power from the English Monarch James – II and proved instrumental in establishing a nation-state with England at the centre. This revolution proved instrumental in forging these ethnic groups.

(ii) The act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland resulted in the creation of Great Britain. English culture was imposed over Scottish people. This is revealed from the fact that the Catholic clans inhabiting Scottish highlands were forbidden to speak their Gaelic language or wear their national dress.

(iii) Ireland suffered a similar fate. It was divided between Catholics and Protestants & here England supported Protestants to establish their dominance over a largely catholic country. Ireland was forcibly made a part of the UK through a new act of union in 1801.

(iv) After it, a new British nation began to be formed through the propagation of a dominant English culture. Union Jack (The British flag), God save our noble king(The national anthem) and English language were actively promoted as a symbol of new Britain.

Q5) Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans? (BOSE)
Ans: The Balkans was the most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe because of the following reasons.

i) The Balkans include present-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro etc. So, it reveals that Balkan was a region of geographical & ethnic variation. This wide diversity of the region led to nationalist tensions.

ii) A large part of Balkans was under the Ottoman Empire. The disintegration of the empire and the romantic nationalism made the region highly sensitive. It was so because the Slavic nationalities struggled to define their identity and independence.

iii) The Balkan states were jealous of each other as each of them tried to gain more territory at the expense of others.

iv) The Balkan problem became more complicated because of big power rivalry. The European powers such as Russia, Germany, England, Austria and Hungary wanted to take control of the region. This led to a series of Balkan wars which culminated into the outbreak of the First World War in 1914.

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